(Born: Hanau, Germany, 15 September 1842; Died: Berlin, Germany, 23 June 1907) German mineralogist.
Klein was an eminent mineralogist, primarily concerned with the the optical properties of minerals under the microscope. He also developed important polarization microscope techniques, as well as some work on meteorites.
Biographical references: Centralblatt für Mineralogie: Jg. 1907, 641-661, portrait. Freund & Berg, Geschichte der Mikroskopie, 1966: 3, 235-9, portrait. Poggendorff: 3, 742, 4, 755-6 & 5, 635. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London: 1907-1908, p. lviii-lix. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1462.
1. German, 1869 [Dissertation].
Über Zwillingsverbindungen und Verzerrungen und ihre Beziehungen an den Symmetrieverhältnissen der Krystallsysteme der hohen philosophischen Facultät der Universität Heidelberg zur Erlangung der venia docendi vorgelegt von Dr. Carl Klein. Heidelberg, Buchdruckerei von G. Mohr, 1869.
8°: iv, 50 p., 3 plates.
A very well written, comprehensive survey of the development of the concept and understanding of twinning up to 1869, including much of historical interest. Klein treats the formation of twins and distorted crystals and their relationship to the symmetry conditions of the crystal systems.
Bibliographical references: Poggendorff: 3, p. 724.
2. German, 1876.
Einleitung | in die | Krystallberechnung | von | Carl Klein. | [wavy rule] | Mit 196 Holzschnitten und zwölf Tafeln. | [ornate rule] | Stuttgart. | E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung (E. Koch). | 1876.
8°: [i]-vi, -393,  errata p., 196 illus., 12 folding plates.
Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso printer notice; [iii]-iv, "Vorwort"; [v]-vi, "Inhalt"; -72, "Allgemeine Theil"; -393, "Specieller Theil"; [1 pg], "Berichtigungen"; [At end], Plates.
Scarce. Based upon comments in the American Journal of Science reviews, this single volume was distributed in two parts. The first consisted of pages 1-208 appeared in 1875, while the second incorporating pages 209-393 appeared in 1876.
Edward S. Dana reviewing the work wrote Klein "develops the subject of Crystallography from the standpoint of Quenstedt, according to whom the relations of the planes of a crystal are shown by the lines in which they are projected upon a given plane of projection. He does not confine himself to the somewhat unwieldy formulas of Quenstedt, however, but makes all calculations of axial relations and parameters by means of spherical triangles in the manner employed by von Kobell. The author has worked out with much care and completeness the solutions of the various problems which arise, and accompanies each with an example performed in full, so the student cannot fail to comprehend the method." Reviewing the second part, Dana continues, "The present part includes a detailed description of the methods of calculation applicable to the monoclinic, triclinic, and hexagonal systems, the whole being characterized by the same clearness and thoroughness to which attention was before called. A chapter upon the drawing of crystals forms the conclusion of the work.
Bibliographical references: American Journal of Science: 3rd Series, 11 (1876), 68 & 413.
3. German, 1906.
Studien über Meteoriten, vorgenommen auf Grund des Materials der Sammlung der Universität Berlin. Von ... C. Klein. Berlin, 1906.
4°: 141 p., 3 plates.
Very scarce. Published as Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Physikalische Abhandlungen, no. 1.
Bibliographical references: BMC: 6, 84.